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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

4.Captain America: Civil War

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把职工安置好还是我们推进供给侧结构性改革,推动化解和淘汰过剩产能中最关键的问题。
According to the index, tourists are "spending overwhelmingly" to shop -- and not to dine -- in the top 20 destinations outside of Europe, despite many of them being world-famous cuisine capitals.
专注于新兴市场的基金集团经历了难熬的一年,安本(Aberdeen)和安石(Ashmore)的资产管理规模都严重缩水。新兴市场交易所交易基金(ETF)也遭遇大规模赎回,ETF.com数据显示,投资者从贝莱德(BlackRock)旗下基金iShares MSCI Emerging Markets以及先锋(Vanguard)富时新兴市场(FTSE Emerging Markets)撤出95亿美元。

James Bond Themes 5. "Live and Let Die" by Paul McCartney and Wings
这份榜单的四所英国大学分别是剑桥大学、牛津大学和伦敦大学和帝国理工学院。东京大学也位列前20名。
[?m'fibi?s]

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

财政部:前7月国有土地使用权出让收入31548亿元 同比增35.1%

2014年出现了这么多大有前途的新剧:《真探》(True Detective)、《荣耀之女》(The Honorable Woman)、《冰血暴》(Fargo)、《婚外情》(The Affair)、《奥丽芙·基特里奇》(Olive Kitteridge)和《硅谷》(Silicon Valley)等。有些老剧仍在坚持,或者莫名其妙地重振雄风,或者在被砍后再次回归,最显眼的是丽莎·库卓(Lisa Kudrow)主演的HBO喜剧《归来记》(The Comeback),它在2005年播出一季后被砍,今年11月回归。
adj. 确实的,保障的,有自信的 动词assure的过
The contiguous United States set a temperature record in 2012, a year of scorching heat waves and drought. But, mostly because of the unusual chill in the East, 2014 was only the 34th warmest year on record for the lower 48 states.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

IMD and Iese Business Schools have tightened their grip on the top spots of the twin FT executive education rankings, monopolising first and second places for both open-enrolment and customised programmes.
他们在培养核心球员,寻求合适的角色球员。他们可是湖人队啊,对他们而言,很有可能会有一到两个有实力的自由球员主动投怀送抱。
愿你的新年光彩夺目,愿你的新年灿烂辉煌!佳节快乐!

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • Emma Morano’s singular achievement in life may have been perseverance. She lived for 117 years, crediting her longevity to raw eggs and her lack of a husband. She died on April 15.
  • 江苏南京、苏州等热点城市房价上涨预期下降
  • 继续推进财税体制改革。
  • 深圳市市场稽查局:6.5亿元房源信息属虚假广告
  • 集成定制改写未来家居
  • As supporters kept streaming toward the Capitol building, one yelled out, “Today, a new Puerto Rico begins!” to the cheers of others, including those holding U.S. flags.
    时间:2011-12-06 编辑:Jasmine

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 中介欠房租 承租人被判搬离, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

40城出台调控政策120余次 楼市真的要变天?

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

家具产业出口下滑 高端制造短板未破

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 1950年世界杯决赛,巴西1比2不敌乌拉圭,与冠军失之交臂。对现在的巴西球迷来说,那依然是一段令人痛楚的耻辱史。如今,贝尔蒙特老爷子已经85岁高龄,他希望能够看到祖国重拾桑巴荣耀。“我希望巴西再次夺冠。”他说。“这是我们的复仇之战,我很想去看。”
    STEP 2: STIM
  • 然后,新班子的第一个举动——用路易斯-威廉姆斯从火箭那里换来一个一轮签——是一个明确的信号,他们意识到必须不惜一切代价保证六月抽签时自己的选秀权能在前三。
    据另一家市场研究公司Counterpoint的统计数据显示,中国去年智能手机总出货量达到了4.65亿台,占据全球总量的近三分之一。
    你是不是今年遇到过一些糟糕的面试?这项调查肯定能让你振奋起来,除非你恰好也经历过类似窘境。人力资源公司OfficeTeam要求来自北美的600名管理者描述他们在2014年见过的最令人尴尬的面试失误。以下是他们给出的答案。
    与去年相比,亚马逊(Amazon)、星巴克(Starbucks)和Facebook今年的品牌价值飙升。亚马逊的品牌价值增长59%,至990亿美元,排名第七,Elspeth Cheung表示,这在一定程度上源于其创造需求、而不仅仅是满足需求的能力。她表示,亚马逊的一小时送货服务对其他零售商加快送货速度构成压力,同时这家在线零售商进入物流领域对联合包裹(UPS)、联邦快递(FedEx)以及DHL等快递公司构成威胁。
    We learned about a warehouse that is like a mausoleum for endangered species.

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • “金九”将至 为换房降价卖房增多
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 唐县冀东水泥投1.2亿处置城市垃圾污泥

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

It is the first time that EMBA-Global, the joint programme delivered by London Business School and Columbia Business School, has dropped out of the top five.
俄罗斯为世界上第十大经济体,除了天然气(碳氢化合物),经济贡献甚微。腐败和寻租行为使经济蒙受巨大损失。它依然沿用着苏联时代的基础设施,并且满足国民教育、医疗需求的能力正急速下滑。
乔布斯在苹果全球研发者大会上手持iPhone 4 ,2010年6月7日,旧金山
对于可治疗的癌症,非洲人有了新的希望。
老爷车:由于今年在一个海外小岛上发现了一大批尘封50年之久的老爷车,导致现在二战后的老爷车的供给充足,价格也显著下降。收藏家们尤其喜欢Packards、Studebakers、Hudsons、Nashes、Kaisers和Henry J’s等型号的老爷车。更令人吃惊的是这批老爷车的车况都十分良好,能够满足日常使用。(财富中文网)
但是随着西方制造业和工业的衰落,不少工薪阶层市镇也随之衰败,父母和祖父母们发现,下一代已经不能拥有他们曾经拥有的机会了。
immunity

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • The 2018 Academic Ranking of World Universities released last Wednesday by Shanghai Ranking Consultancy reveals that 62 research universities in China have made their list of the world's top 500 universities.
  • 国务院:放开放宽除个别超大城市外的城市落户限制
  • senior
    Cannes' heckles and jeers are famous and the first film to fall foul of this tough crowd was Gus Van Sant's Sea of Trees, which was greeted by a storm of raspberries and thunderous boos at its press screening. Because these take place before a film receives its black-tie premiere, word quickly gets around and can cast a pall over the big event. When Naomi Watts and Matthew McConaughey took their turn on the red carpet, it had “a horrifically compelling walk-of-shame quality” according to the Daily Telegraph. But the Texan actor put on a brave face at a press conference shortly afterwards. “Anyone has as much right to boo as they do to ovate,” he said. I think we know what he meant.
  • 郑州建材市场外迁今年收官
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • The top-earning woman in the music business has been cashing in on a massive world tour, a constant stream of hit singles and a string of endorsements with a slew of major companies, while occasionally throwing thinly veiled barbs at her chief rival.
    3.在戛纳,他们说英语
  • 他说,到1997-98年亚洲金融危机爆发时,美联储的回应已变得更加迅速,它退出了紧缩周期,担心东南亚的动荡会影响美国经济。
    根据美国国会预算办公室(Congressional Budget Office)的数据,税收增加与支出削减将2013年的经济增速拉低了约1.5个百分点。许多预测人士认为,2014年财政因素对经济增速的拖累幅度将是2013年的三分之一或更低。牛津经济研究院(Oxford Economics)的美国经济学家达科(Gregory Daco)称,今年政治方面的确定性更高。
  • 虽然唐尼主演的几部电影将在明年上映,但规模成本要比他的超级英雄电影小得多。直到2015年《复仇者联盟:奥创纪元》(Avengers: Age of Ultron)上映,他才能迎来下一个丰收季。
    With the second round of (re)negotiations closing on Tuesday we have truly entered the technocratic phase of these trade talks.
  • 与2013-2014赛季的世界各大足球联赛相比,本届世界杯的场均进球确实更多。荷甲以场均进球3.2个高居欧洲各大联赛之首,德甲则以3.16个紧随其后。上个赛季,其他联赛的场均进球都没有超过2.8个。目前,美国职业足球大联盟的场均进球为2.89个。
    This research involves a large longitudinal study of emotion in interactions within married couples.
    The Lord of the Rings trilogy. The amount of time before I need an oil change. My cell phone's battery charge. What do all of these things have in common? The
  • 而在进口一侧,不论以人民币还是美元计,情况都愈发糟糕。
    国有企业员工对年终奖表达了比民营企业更高的满意度。这一点毫不奇怪,因为国企的平均年终奖是17318元人民币,比民企的预期年终奖高了大约6000元人民币。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 王毅:中美两国元首达成共识 停止加征新的关税 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

全国首套房贷利率连涨20月 100万贷30年利息多还13万

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

学校惊现千张甲醛超标桌椅 不合格桌椅如何混进教室和宿舍?

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

增值税改革降负红利释放 降税率和留抵退税已减税1745亿

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

成交近25万㎡ 小阳春或贯穿整个二季度

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • The Hidrate Spark 2 tracks your water intake by syncing with a mobile app and recording how many ounces of water you drink a day, which can also be tracked by remembering how many times you refilled your bottle labeled with the number of ounces on the side.
  • 《人物》评选的电影史上35位美人(1)
  • 天津人才新政6天落户5800余人

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 《副总统》(Veep):Netflix公司的热门剧《纸牌屋》(House of Cards)今年露出疲态,但另一部讽刺华盛顿的HBO电视剧《副总统》却在第三季中更上一层楼。塞琳娜(朱莉娅·路易斯-德莱弗斯[Julia Louis-Dreyfus]饰)和助手加里(Gary,托尼·黑尔[Tony Hale]饰)在洗手间里发现自己即将成为总统后,激动得失声大笑,成为2014年喜剧片中最滑稽的一幕。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 其中一本被标上"M3"的坟墓里包含有神兽的雕刻,其中有四只代表一年四季以及天堂的各个部分:西边的白虎,南边的朱红鸟,北边的黑龟,东边的青龙。
    警方周四表示,关于14岁少女Lecent Ross的枪击案,已逮捕两人。
    While Insead’s joint programme dropped back into second place, its single-school programme moved up three places to fourth, a place it last occupied in 2011.
  • “双创”可以说是应运而生,在全球化、“互联网+”的时代,我们推动“放管服”改革,也促进了“大众创业、万众创新”。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 4.阿迪达斯。品牌喜爱度:35%/排名:25
  • 万科进军家装市场 加大智能家居等业务
  • About 71.9 million units were shipped in the period, which includes the key Christmas shopping season. IDC said the decline was the worst since it started tracking PC shipments.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 央行副行长:货币政策并非助推房价单一因素
  • Household substance abuse
  • 中装新网建材频道隆重上线
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

存虚假宣传等违规行为 成都32家房企中介被通报

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 京雄高速、新机场高速、安立路改造……这些重点项目今年开工
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 小区绿地成了废旧家具“据点”
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

10. The difference between a lie and a promise is that the believer of a lie is the listener and the believer of a promise is the speaker.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

《楚乔传》改编自网络小说《11处特工皇妃》,讲述了女奴楚乔的奇遇以及她和燕洵世子的爱情故事。
“中国政府将GDP增长目标设定为7.5%,并努力将通胀保持在可控水平,很令人欣慰。这不仅会保持中国经济的繁荣,还将促进地区经济和全球经济的发展,印尼也将从中受益。”Imron Cotan, Indonesian ambassador to China
“当她穿着华丽的衣服站在舞台上,她神采奕奕的表情对我来说是无价之宝。”
China is the most striking wild card that will drive agricultural markets, said Stefan Vogel, head of agri commodity markets at Rabobank,
请尊重一下那些支持你的人以及节目主持人,能在访谈开始前把口香糖吐了吗?
保障房倡导者们则担心,如果重新区划做得不认真,那么居民社区或将迅速士绅化。“看看威廉斯堡(Williamsburg)发生了什么吧,”城市正义中心(Urban Justice Center)的社区开发项目负责人哈维·艾普斯坦(Harvey Epstein)说,他指的是房价上涨,“我不明白,它怎么就不可能发生在东纽约、布朗克斯或者法拉盛呢。”
Add your scores for 10 to 14 to find out how you score on the Social Inhibition scale.
The paperpot transplanter allows a single person to transplant 264 plants covering over 85ft in just minutes. What used to take hours, now takes minutes. Allowing you to spend less time transplanting crops, and more time doing other things like farm improvements, marketing, sales, or just taking some time off.
Companies do have black lists. It's not written down anywhere but it's a list of people they'd be happy to get rid of if the opportunity arises. If you feel invisible, if you're getting bad assignments, if your boss is ignoring you, or if they move your office, you're probably on it.
*喜剧类最佳客串女演员:蒂娜?菲(Tina Fey)和艾米?波勒(Amy Poehler),《周六夜现场》(Saturday Night Live)

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

上海房价评估收费为北京10倍 服务质量良莠不齐

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • The PPI fell 5.3 per cent year-on-year in January, moderating from December’s -5.9 per cent pace. PPI has remained in negative territory since March 2012, reaching a low of -5.9 per cent for the five consecutive months since August 2015.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 该剧讲述了6位男女和他们飘忽不定的爱情,还有他们在咖啡店中享用超大杯咖啡的时光。而谁想到这竟成为情景剧中最具深入人心的场景之一?
  • K2地产代理销售卷款失联 全民代理增加购房风险
  • 在婴儿出生前治疗出生缺陷
  • 家具行业转型实现渠道革新的五大方向
  • ● 一群非法投票人在六个投票点出现给希拉里投票,你们还以为选民骗局是假的吗?

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 个税改革首月减税316亿元
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • Brain death is a bit of an inconvenience if you're a fan of living, and if you're looking to replace yours with a spare, you're out of luck. Sure, maybe we'll one day be able to plant brains into skulls, but the brain's not just another organ. It contains all your thoughts and memories. They can plop a new brain in your head, but you'll still be gone, so the idea of making artificial brains may seem absurd.
  • 3. The government bothlocal and national will invest in more technology-driven sectors, includingadvanced agriculture, transportation, medicine and other sectors. Thisinitiative will be aimed squarely at improving China’s productivity andmanufacturing competitiveness. There will be a national effort aimed atachieving quality, first-time yield and ensuring “productivity driven” globalcompetitiveness.

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

立邦涂料打假陷入困境

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